Glossary and other

Glossary and other

Cross-Sectional Study

Looking at a group of people at one point in time.  Considered the lowest level of evidence and can only recognise associations

The “GRADE” quality of evidence

GRADE: Grading or recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation.


New Zealand FOODfiles is the major source of verified food composition data available in New Zealand. This is a joint project with Plant & Food Research and the Ministry of Health.

New Zealand Dietary Guidelines

The Eating and Activity Guidelines for New Zealand Adults provides evidence-based population health advice on healthy eating and being physically active.

Nutritrack Database

The Nutritrack database tracks labelling, ingredients and nutrient composition of New Zealand packaged food in New Zealand. Data is collected annually from four supermarkets representing two major supermarket retailers in New Zealand. The data is linked to the Nielsen Homescan market research panel and covers over 100,000 products since 2013. Trained field staff systematically collect information on product nutrition composition, ingredients and labelling using photographs and a tailored smart-phone application instore. Product details are kept on a secure online database. The accuracy of the data is quality checked in a random sample of 15% of products.

The Nutrition Information Panel

A nutritional information panel is found on most foods.

Randomised controlled trial

The intervention is trialed on study groups.  One group is the control group and receives no treatment.  Trial participants are randomly assigned to a study group and ideally, not aware of which intervention they are receiving (blinded).  Considered a high level of evidence.

Study types and heirarchy of evidence

Different study types provide different levels of evidence.

Sugar Classifications

Sugars are classified by their structure based on the number of simple sugars in a chain – sugars, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides.

Sugar definitions

Sugars may be naturally occurring in foods or be added to foods and described as free, added, intrinsic and total.